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Waste Management
Waste management refers to a set of processes and activities for handling waste materials, including the collection, transportation and disposal of waste. It also encompasses strategies to prevent or reduce waste at the source, the recycling and treatment as well as the compliance to health & safety and environmental regulations. Waste is defined as unwanted material left over from a production process, or a residue which has no marketable value. Waste is often classified on the basis of their toxicity, and includes municipal solid waste, industrial waste, wastewater, biomedical waste and special hazardous waste such as chemical, electronic waste and radioactive material among others. Waste Management is a huge issue, both in the industrialized and developing world, because of the high volume of waste generated everyday, especially in large populated urban cities. 
Waste management strategies 
From an environmental perspective, traditional systems of waste management such as landfills or incineration have been very unpopular since the nineties as they became associated with heavy pollution and environmental degradation. Many countries have now legislation that ban or regulate those traditional waste management systems. The new approach is a multi-layer approach which consists of: (i) reducing waste produced to a minimum amount; (ii) recycling by separating waste into different bins for future reuse; (iii) treatment of waste materials in order to minimize its' health and environmental effects; and (iv) Disposal of the residual waste that cannot be recycled after treatment. There are two common methods of disposing waste: landfills and incineration. Incineration may be a preferred way of disposal, nevertheless less efficient processes still release a lot of dioxin and other toxins in the atmosphere. Proper WM strategies may also include a socioeconomic dimension through composting or energy production using combustion, gasification or methanization (anaerobic digestion) technologies.  

Role of Governments in Waste Management
In general, central and local governments are the responsible authorities for managing or overseeing the management of both hazardous and non-hazardous waste. In Canada, for instance: (i) municipal governments are responsible for establishing collection, recycling, and disposal of waste within their jurisdictions; (ii) provincial and territorial governments establish measures and criteria for licensing hazardous-waste generators, carriers, and treatment facilities, in addition to controlling movements of wastes within their jurisdictions; (iii) the Federal Government regulates transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and hazardous recyclable materials, in addition to negotiating international agreements. 

To ensure compliance with tighter regulations, companies more and more view waste management as an integral part of their comprehensive business strategy. Companies who desire to implement an Environmental Management Sytem and seek ISO14001 accreditation are required to improve their environmental performance and have a sustainable waste management strategy. A few organizations have decided to adopt the "zero waste concept" but measuring success and progress towards such an ambitious goal is quite challenging. International and national guidelines exist for developing and implementing a recycling/ waste minimization program.